Showing posts from June, 2018

Prion Disease: Overview

Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a family of rare progressive neurodegenerative disorders that affect both humans and animals. They are distinguished by long incubation periods, characteristic spongiform changes associated with neuronal loss, and a failure to induce inflammatory response.

The causative agents of TSEs are believed to be prions. The term “prions” refers to abnormal, pathogenic agents that are transmissible and are able to induce abnormal folding of specific normal cellular proteins called prion proteins that are found most abundantly in the brain. The functions of these normal prion proteins are still not completely understood. The abnormal folding of the prion proteins leads to brain damage and the characteristic signs and symptoms of the disease. Prion diseases are usually rapidly progressive and always fatal.
Identified Prion Diseases
Listed below are the prion diseases identified to date. CDC does not currently offer information …

Statistics of Migraine

Migraine is a public health issue with serious social and economic consequences.
Healthcare and lost productivity costs associated with migraine are estimated to be as high as $36 billion annually in the U.S.In 2015, the medical cost of treating chronic migraine was more than $5.4 billion, however, these sufferers spent over $41 billion on treating their entire range of conditions.Healthcare costs are 70% higher for a family with a migraine sufferer than a non-migraine affected family.American employers lose more than $13 billion each year because of 113 million lost work days due to migraine.U.S. headache sufferers receive $1 billion worth of brain scans each year.Migraine sufferers, like those who suffer from other chronic illnesses, experience the high costs of medical services, too little support, and limited access to quality care.Beyond the burden of a migraine attack itself, having migraine increases the risk for other physical and psychiatric conditions. Migraine remains a poorl…

Migraine- Who gets affected more??

Migraine disproportionately affects women. Migraine affects about 28 million women in the U.S.85% of chronic migraine sufferers are women.Before puberty, boys are affected more than girls, but during adolescence, the risk of migraine and its severity rises in girls.Roughly 1 in 4 women will experience migraine in their lives.Three times as many women as men suffer from migraine in adulthood.About half of female sufferers have more than one attack each month, and a quarter experience 4 or more severe attacks per month.More severe and more frequent attacks often result from fluctuations in estrogen levels. Migraine affects kids, too. Migraine often goes undiagnosed in children.About 10% of school-age children suffer from migraine.Half of all migraine sufferers have their first attack before the age of 12. Migraine has even been reported in children as young as 18 months. Recently, infant colic was found to be associated with childhood migraine and may even be an early form of migraine.Chil…

Fact and Figures about Migraine

Migraine is an extraordinarily prevalent neurological disease, affecting 39 million men, women and children in the U.S. and 1 billion worldwide.

Everyone either knows someone who suffers from migraine or struggles with migraine themselves. Migraine is the 3rd most prevalent illness in the world.Nearly 1 in 4 U.S. households includes someone with migraine.Amazingly, 12% of the population – including children – suffers from migraine.18% of American women, 6% of men, and 10% of children experience migraines.Migraine is most common between the ages of 25 and 55.Migraine tends to run in families. About 90% of migraine sufferers have a family history of migraine. Most people don’t realize how serious and incapacitating migraine can be. Migraine is the 6th most disabling illness in the world.Every 10 seconds, someone in the U.S. goes to the emergency room complaining of head pain, and approximately 1.2 million visits are for acute migraine attacks.While most sufferers experience attacks once or…

Natural Home Remedies for Migraine

Most people with this type of headache can manage the pain of mild-to-moderate attacks at home by:
Using a cold compress on the area of painResting with pillows comfortably supporting the head or neckResting in a room with little or no sensory stimulation (from light, sound, or odors)Withdrawing from stressful surroundingsSleepingDrinking a moderate amount of caffeine What's the Outlook for a Person with Migraines? Regular follow-up care with a doctor or other health care professional is a must. Keep a pain journal to monitor the frequency of attacks and the medications you use can be very helpful. It may take several doctor visits before an effective treatment plan is found.
After the headaches are under control, the prognosis is very good. Patience is key. As noted previously, it may take several attempts before an effective treatment plan is found.
No one treatment or drug is effective for every person. A drug that works well for one patient may not provide any relief for anoth…

Home Remedies and and Lifestyle changes to relieve Migraines

Migraine patients can play a significant role in managing their headache frequency and severity.

Keep track of when migraines occur by using a headache diary or log to track pain levels, triggers, and symptoms. This can help identify patterns that precede a migraine, as well as help identify factors that contribute to the development of the headache. Once these contributing factors are known, lifestyle modifications can lessen their impact. These modifications may include:
Maintain a regular schedule for eating and sleeping Avoid certain foods that might cause a migraineKeep well hydrated since dehydration has been identified as a migraine trigger for some peopleExercise regularly Relaxation strategies and meditation also have been recognized as effective strategies to prevent migraines and decrease their severity. Exercise and Migraine Some people find that exercises that promote muscle relaxation can help manage the pain of migraines. Examples of types of mind-body exercises that can he…

Migraine vs Headache

It is important to know the difference between a migraine attack and a headache.

Headaches can vary a great deal in how long they last, how severe they are, and why they happen. They may not occur in a recognizable pattern as migraine attacks do.
Migraine attacks will present as moderate-to-severe headaches on one side of the head that occur with other symptoms, such as nausea and vomiting. Migraine and non-migraine headaches are different and can indicate different causes.
To help identify a migraine headache, it can be useful to keep a diary of symptoms noting the time of onset, any triggers, the duration of the headaches, any noticeable signs or auras leading up to a migraine attack, and any other symptoms.
A headache diary should ideally be used for a minimum of 8 weeks and record: the frequency, duration, and severity of headachesany associated symptomsall prescribed and OTC medications taken to relieve headache symptomspossible triggersthe relationship of headaches to menstruation

When Should I See a Doctor for a Migraine?

Call a doctor or other health care professional if any of the following occur:
A change in frequency, severity, or features of the migraine commonly experiencedA new, progressive #headache that lasts for daysA headache brought on by coughing, sneezing, bearing down, straining while on the toilet, or other physical strainingSignificant unintentional loss of body weightWeakness or paralysis that lasts after the #headache Go to a hospital emergency department if any of the following occur: Having the worst headache ever, especially if the headache had a sudden onsetHeadache associated with trauma to the head or loss of consciousnessFever or stiff neck associated with headacheDecreased level of consciousness or confusionParalysis of one side of the bodySeizure How Can I Tell If I Have a Migraine or Another Type of Headache? The diagnosis of migraine headache rests solely on what a patient describes to a doctor or other medical professional. A doctor's physical examination of the patient…

Medications for Migraine

Migraines are often managed through a course of medication. There are many different types of migraine medication, including painkillers. Painkillers should be taken early in the progress of a migraine rather than allowing the headache to develop.

Over-the-counter (OTC) medications effective for treating migraines include: naproxenibuprofenacetaminophenOther painkillers, such as aspirin with caffeine and acetaminophen, can often stop the headache or reduce pain. Drugs that treat nausea Some people who experience migraines will need to take medications that treat the accompanying symptoms.
Metoclopramide may be used to control certain symptoms, such as nausea and vomiting. Serotonin agonists, such as sumatriptan, may also be prescribed for severe migraines or for migraines that do not respond to OTC medications. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and antidepressants, such as tricyclics, are prescribed to reduce migraine symptoms, although they are not approved in all countri…

Treatment of Migraine

There is currently no single cure for migraines. Treatment is aimed at preventing a full-blown attack, and alleviating the symptoms that occur.

Lifestyle alterations that might help reduce the frequency of migraines include: getting enough sleepreducing stressdrinking plenty of wateravoiding certain foodsregular physical exerciseSome people also find that special diets can help, such as gluten-free. Consider seeking further treatment if the above changes do not relieve the symptoms or frequency of migraines. The treatment of migraine symptoms focuses on avoiding triggers, controlling symptoms, and taking medicine. Surgery The last decade has seen the development of new approaches to the treatment of migraines. A doctor may administer an injection of botulinum toxin, or Botox, to the extra cranial sensory branches of the trigeminal and cervical spinal nerves. These are a group of nerves in the face and neck linked to migraine reactions.
A 2014 review also showed that surgical decompress…

Triggers for Migraine

Many factors have been identified as migraine triggers.

1. Normal hormone fluctuations, which occur with regular menstrual cycles, and some types of oral contraceptives (birth control pills).
2. Various foods such as: Red winesAged cheesesPreservatives used in smoked meats (nitrates)Monosodium glutamateArtificial sweetenersChocolateDairy productsOversleepingAlcohol beverages 3. Stress
4. Exposure to strong stimuli such as bright lights, loud noises, or strong smells.
5. Changes in barometric pressure have been described as leading to migraine headaches.
Not every individual who has migraines will experience one when exposed to these triggers.  If a person is unsure what specific triggers might cause a migraine, maintaining a headache diary can be beneficial to identify those individual factors that lead to migraine.
International Conference on #Alzheimers, #Dementia and Related #Neurodegenerative Diseases is scheduled on December 03-04, 2018 at Madrid, Spain with the theme of Leading #Advan…

Fast Facts on Migraines

Some people who experience migraines can clearly identify triggers or factors that cause the headaches, such as allergies, light, and stress.Some people get a warning symptom before the start of the migraine headache.Many people with migraine can prevent a full-blown attack by recognizing and acting upon the warning signs.Over-the-counter (OTC) medications can eliminate or reduce pain, and specific medications can help some people with migraine.People who have severe attacks can take preventive medicines. International Conference on #Alzheimers, Dementia and Related #Neurodegenerative Diseases is scheduled on December 03-04, 2018 at Madrid, Spain with the theme of Leading Advancements and Remedies in the #Neurodegenerative Disorders..  Submit your abstracts to be a part of the conference.. Submit via: To know more download our brochure:

Types of Migraine

Common migraine (or absence migraine) has no "aura.” About 80% of migraines are common.Classic migraines (migraine with aura) present with an aura before the headache and are more severe than common migraines.A silent or acephalic migraine is a migraine without head pain but with aura and other aspects of migraine.A hemiplegic migraine can have symptoms that mimic a stroke, such as weakness on one side of the body, loss of sensation, or feeling ‘pins and needles.’A retinal migraine causes temporary vision loss in one eye, which can last from minutes to months, but it is usually reversible. This is often a sign of a more serious medical problem, and patients should seek medical care.A chronic migraine is a migraine headache that lasts for more than 15 days per month.Status migrainosus is a constant migraine attack that lasts more than 72 hours.
To know more... Join us at the International Conference on #Alzheimers, Dementia and Related Neurodegenerative Diseases which is scheduled…

Symptoms of Migraine

Migraines often begin in childhood, adolescence or early adulthood. Migraines may progress through four stages: prodrome, aura, headache and post-drome, though you may not experience all stages.
Prodrome One or two days before a migraine, you may notice subtle changes that warn of an upcoming migraine, including: ConstipationMood changes, from depression to euphoriaFood cravingsNeck stiffnessIncreased thirst and urinationFrequent yawning Aura Aura may occur before or during migraines. Most people experience migraines without aura. Auras are symptoms of the nervous system. They are usually visual disturbances, such as flashes of light or wavy, zigzag vision.
Sometimes auras can also be touching sensations (sensory), movement (motor) or speech (verbal) disturbances. Your muscles may get weak, or you may feel as though someone is touching you.
Each of these symptoms usually begins gradually, builds up over several minutes and lasts for 20 to 60 minutes. Examples of migraine aura include: Vis…


Migraine is a neurological condition that can cause multiple symptoms. It’s frequently characterized by intense, debilitating headaches. Symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, difficulty speaking, numbness or tingling, and sensitivity to light and sound. Migraines often run in families and affect all ages.
The diagnosis of migraine headaches is determined based on clinical history, reported symptoms, and by ruling out other causes. The most common categories of migraine headache are those without aura (previously known as common migraines) and those with aura (previously known as classic migraines).
Migraines can begin in childhood or may not occur until early adulthood. Women are more likely than men to have migraines. Family history is one of the most common risk factors for having migraines.

Symptoms include: Eye painSensitivity to light or soundNauseaVomitingSevere pain, usually on one side of the head that some individuals describe as "pounding International Conference on #Al…

Schilder’s Disease

Schilder’s disease is a very rare, progressive, degenerative, demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) that usually begins in childhood and young adulthood (mostly males between the ages of 7 and 12). Schilder’s disease is thought to be a variant of MS.As the disease progresses, larger and larger patches of demyelination occur, interfering with motor movement, speech, personality, hearing and vision, ultimately affecting the vital functions of respiration, heart rate, blood pressure.Schilder's disease is also known as diffuse cerebral sclerosis, diffuse cerebral sclerosis of Schilder and myelinoclastic diffuse sclerosis.Schilder’s disease is not the same as Addison-Schilder disease (adrenoleukodystophy), a rare inherited disease characterized by a biochemical abnormality in the myelin.What causes Schilder’s disease? The underlying cause of Schilder’s disease is unknown. Schilder’s disease often occurs shortly after an infectious illness and may begin with …

Transverse Myelitis

Overview Transverse myelitis is a neurological disorder caused by inflammation (swelling) across both sides of one level or segment of the spinal cord. Inflammation can damage or destroy myelin, the fatty protective substance that covers nerve cell fibers. This damage causes scars that interrupt the communication between the nerves in the spinal cord and the rest of the body. Most people affected by transverse myelitis will have only one attack; a small percentage may have more than one attack.
Transverse myelitis can appear as the first symptom in conditions such as multiple sclerosis (MS) or neuromyelitis optica (NMO). A person with transverse myelitis who also has an abnormal brain MRI with more than two lesions has an increased chance (as high as 90 percent) of going on to develop MS.
What causes transverse myelitis? The exact cause of the damage to the spinal cord has not yet been determined with certainty but it is thought that it may be due to an autoimmune reaction to a viral o…

Balo’s Disease

Balo’s disease is a rare demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) in which the myelin (the fatty substance covering nerve fibers) is damaged. Balo’s disease shares features with other demyelinating diseases and — while some consider it a distinct disorder — most MS specialists view it as a rare variantof multiple sclerosis (MS).
Attacks from Balo's disease can proceed rapidly over weeks or months, usually without remission (a rapidly progressive course); a relapsing course (periods of symptoms followed by improvement or disappearance of symptoms) can also occur, or a person may experience a single attack (monophasic course).
What causes Balo’s disease? The cause of Balo’s disease is not known, however, some studies indicate that autoimmune factors may play a role in its development. Autoimmune disorders are caused when the body's natural defenses against "foreign" or invading organisms begin to attack healthy tissue for unknown reasons resul…

Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) (contd.)

Who gets ADEM, and when? Although ADEM can appear at any age, children are more likely than adults to develop it. More than 80 percent of childhood cases occur in patients younger than 10 years. Most of the remaining cases occur between the ages of 10 and 20 but ADEM is sometimes (rarely) diagnosed in adults. ADEM is thought to affect 1 in every 125,000 to 250,000 individuals in a given year. Five percent of these cases could be associated with vaccination. ADEM appears a little more frequently in boys than girls (about 60 percent of the time) with a male to female ratio of 1.3 : 1.ADEM appears more often in winter and spring.ADEM occurs in all parts of the world and in all ethnic groups. How is ADEM different from MS? In most but not all cases, ADEM occurs only once, while patients with MS have further, repeated attacks of inflammation in their brains and spinal cords.In most cases, ADEM patients do not develop new scars on a repeat MRI scan whereas MS patients typically experience ne…

Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM)

Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a brief but intense attack of inflammation (swelling) in the brain and spinal cord and occasionally the optic nerves that damages the brain’s myelin (the white coating of nerve fibers). Other terms used to refer to ADEM include post-infectious encephalomyelitis and immune-mediated encephalomyelitis.
ADEM is sometimes difficult to distinguish from multiplesclerosis (MS) because the symptoms common to both "demyelinating" disorders include loss of vision, weakness, numbness and loss of balance. Both ADEM and MS involve immune-mediated responses to myelin in the brain and spinal cord.
What causes ADEM? The cause of ADEM is not clear but in more than half of the cases, symptoms appear following a viral or bacterial infection, usually a sore throat or cough and very rarely following vaccination. ADEM is thought to be an autoimmune condition where the body’s immune system mistakenly identifies its own healthy cells and tissues …

Which types of doctors and specialists treat multiple sclerosis?

Speech Pathologist: A speech pathologist can help patients improve speech clarity, and some can even work on cognitive exercises for patients who have problems with memory. If swallowing problems are identified, speech pathologists can help determine the cause and whether therapy will help improve swallowing ability or if dietary changes are needed.
Primary Care Provider: A primary care provider such as a family doctor or internist is needed to help keep patients with MS in good health by keeping track of blood pressure, cholesterol, glucose, immunization status, and other factors.
Radiologist: A radiologist reads the imaging studies obtained to monitor the status of patients with MS by comparing current studies to prior studies, doctors can determine if the disease has stabilized.
Physical Therapist: Physical therapists work to help patients regain mobility or strength. They also help patients determine how maintain their strength and mobility after a chronic disease is diagnosed.

Experimental Therapies for Multiple Sclerosis

Experimental therapies being explored to treat or possibly cure multiple sclerosis include stem cell transplantation. Preliminary results from one study, which followed patients for 5 years suggested a decreased relapse rate and improvement in disability. While promising, these results need to be evaluated carefully before this treatment is approved.
In 2009, a vascular surgeon proposed that multiple sclerosis was caused by venous abnormalities that responsible for the true cause of multiple sclerosis was venous insufficiency. This proposed theory was termed chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI). A number of studies have tried to confirm this theory since it would markedly change the approach to treating multiple sclerosis. However, most of the recent data has not shown a causal relationship between any venous insufficiency and multiple sclerosis. Ongoing studies are being conducted, but some experts suggest the more recent findings in the ongoing findings will disprove …

How common is Multiple Sclerosis?

Who develops the disease? Multiple sclerosis occurs predominantly in younger persons, with those aged 15 to 60 most likely to be diagnosed.The average age of diagnosis is about 30 years; however, multiple sclerosis has been identified at all ages.While multiple sclerosis can occur in children, this is very rare.About 2.5 million people worldwide have been diagnosed with MS; of those, about 400,000 live in the United States.Women are about twice as likely as men to develop multiple sclerosis. Can children and teenagers develop multiple sclerosis (pediatric MS)? Children and teenagers can have MS (pediatric MS). It is estimated that about 8,000 to 10,000 children and teens up to 18 years old have been diagnosed with pediatric MS. Moreover, an additional 10,000 to 15,000 children and teens have had at least one symptom of the disease.
Almost all children diagnosed with pediatric MS have the relapsing-remitting MS type; however, additional symptoms often not experienced in adults with MS m…

Types of Multiple Sclerosis

1. Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) is the most common form of MS.
People with this form of the disease develop symptoms that respond to treatment and then resolve. The development of symptoms is often referred to as an exacerbation of the disease. Episodes of remission may last for weeks to years.
2. Secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) Secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) is diagnosed when the problems caused by an exacerbation don't fully resolve during a remission. This often occurs in patients who were initially diagnosed with RRMS. Over time, patients are identified with progressive debility.
3. Primary-progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) Primary-progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) progresses over time, without episodes of remission or improvement of symptoms.
4. Progressive-relapsing multiple sclerosis (PRMS) Progressive-relapsing multiple sclerosis (PRMS) is identified when patients experience…