Saturday, 30 June 2018

Prion Disease: Overview

Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a family of rare progressive neurodegenerative disorders that affect both humans and animals. They are distinguished by long incubation periods, characteristic spongiform changes associated with neuronal loss, and a failure to induce inflammatory response.

The causative agents of TSEs are believed to be prions. The term “prions” refers to abnormal, pathogenic agents that are transmissible and are able to induce abnormal folding of specific normal cellular proteins called prion proteins that are found most abundantly in the brain. The functions of these normal prion proteins are still not completely understood. The abnormal folding of the prion proteins leads to brain damage and the characteristic signs and symptoms of the disease. Prion diseases are usually rapidly progressive and always fatal.

Identified Prion Diseases

Listed below are the prion diseases identified to date. CDC does not currently offer information on every prion disease listed below.

Human Prion Diseases
  • Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD)
  • Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD)
  • Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker Syndrome
  • Fatal Familial Insomnia
  • Kuru
Animal Prion Diseases
  • Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)
  • Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD)
  • Scrapie
  • Transmissible mink encephalopathy
  • Feline spongiform encephalopathy
  • Ungulate spongiform encephalopathy
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Friday, 29 June 2018

Statistics of Migraine

Migraine is a public health issue with serious social and economic consequences.
  • Healthcare and lost productivity costs associated with migraine are estimated to be as high as $36 billion annually in the U.S.
  • In 2015, the medical cost of treating chronic migraine was more than $5.4 billion, however, these sufferers spent over $41 billion on treating their entire range of conditions.
  • Healthcare costs are 70% higher for a family with a migraine sufferer than a non-migraine affected family.
  • American employers lose more than $13 billion each year because of 113 million lost work days due to migraine.
  • U.S. headache sufferers receive $1 billion worth of brain scans each year.
  • Migraine sufferers, like those who suffer from other chronic illnesses, experience the high costs of medical services, too little support, and limited access to quality care.
  • Beyond the burden of a migraine attack itself, having migraine increases the risk for other physical and psychiatric conditions.
Migraine remains a poorly understood disease that is often undiagnosed and under treated.
  • In 2018, there are less than 500 certified headache specialists in the U.S. and 39 million sufferers.
  • More than half of all migraine sufferers are never diagnosed.
  • Most of migraine sufferers do not seek medical care for their pain.
  • Only 4% of migraine sufferers who seek medical care consult headache and pain specialists.
  • Although 25% of sufferers would benefit from preventive treatment, only 12% of all sufferers receive it.
Despite the vast prevalence of migraine and its serious effect on individuals, families and the economy, research into the causes and treatment of migraine is severely underfunded.
  • In 2015, NIH funding for migraine research was just $.50 per sufferer.
  • The Migraine Research Foundation was founded in 2006 to address this lack of funding.
  • Since 2006, MRF has awarded more than $3.75 million in research grants in such areas as basic science, genetics, childhood migraine, and studies investigating new treatments and therapies.
  • 100% of all donations go to fund research and help sufferers as members of MRF’s Board of Directors cover all the operating expenses.
Submit your #abstracts via: to present your work at the International #Conference on #Alzheimers, #Dementia and Related #Neurodegenerative Diseases on December 03-04 at Madrid, Spain with theme of Leading #Advancements and #Remedies in the #Neurodegenerative Disorders 

Thursday, 28 June 2018

Migraine- Who gets affected more??

Migraine disproportionately affects women.
  • Migraine affects about 28 million women in the U.S.
  • 85% of chronic migraine sufferers are women.
  • Before puberty, boys are affected more than girls, but during adolescence, the risk of migraine and its severity rises in girls.
  • Roughly 1 in 4 women will experience migraine in their lives.
  • Three times as many women as men suffer from migraine in adulthood.
  • About half of female sufferers have more than one attack each month, and a quarter experience 4 or more severe attacks per month.
  • More severe and more frequent attacks often result from fluctuations in estrogen levels.
Migraine affects kids, too.
  • Migraine often goes undiagnosed in children.
  • About 10% of school-age children suffer from migraine.
  • Half of all migraine sufferers have their first attack before the age of 12. Migraine has even been reported in children as young as 18 months. Recently, infant colic was found to be associated with childhood migraine and may even be an early form of migraine.
  • Children who suffer are absent from school twice as often as children without migraine.
  • In childhood, boys suffer from migraine more often than girls; as adolescence approaches, the incidence increases more rapidly in girls than in boys.
  • A child who has one parent with migraine has a 50% chance of inheriting it, and if both parents have migraine, the chances rise to 75%.
Join us at the International Conference on #Alzheimers, Dementia and Related #Neurodegenerative Diseases at Madrid, Spain on December 03-04, 2018.. Register via: Submit your abstracts via:

Wednesday, 27 June 2018

Fact and Figures about Migraine

Migraine is an extraordinarily prevalent neurological disease, affecting 39 million men, women and children in the U.S. and 1 billion worldwide.

Everyone either knows someone who suffers from migraine or struggles with migraine themselves.
  • Migraine is the 3rd most prevalent illness in the world.
  • Nearly 1 in 4 U.S. households includes someone with migraine.
  • Amazingly, 12% of the population – including children – suffers from migraine.
  • 18% of American women, 6% of men, and 10% of children experience migraines.
  • Migraine is most common between the ages of 25 and 55.
  • Migraine tends to run in families. About 90% of migraine sufferers have a family history of migraine.
Most people don’t realize how serious and incapacitating migraine can be.
  • Migraine is the 6th most disabling illness in the world.
  • Every 10 seconds, someone in the U.S. goes to the emergency room complaining of head pain, and approximately 1.2 million visits are for acute migraine attacks.
  • While most sufferers experience attacks once or twice a month, more than 4 million people have chronic daily migraine, with at least 15 migraine days per month.
  • More than 90% of sufferers are unable to work or function normally during their migraine.
Migraine is not just a bad headache.
  • Migraine is a neurological disease with extremely incapacitating neurological symptoms.
  • It’s typically a severe throbbing recurring pain, usually on one side of the head. But in about 1/3 of attacks, both sides are affected.
  • In some cases, other disabling symptoms are present without head pain.
  • Attacks are often accompanied by one or more of the following disabling symptoms: visual disturbances, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, extreme sensitivity to sound, light, touch and smell, and tingling or numbness in the extremities or face.
  • About 25% of migraine sufferers also have a visual disturbance called an aura, which usually lasts less than an hour.
  • In 15-20% of attacks, other neurological symptoms occur before the actual head pain.
  • Attacks usually last between 4 and 72 hours.
For many sufferers, migraine is a chronic disease that significantly diminishes their quality of life.
  • More than 4 million adults experience chronic daily migraine – with at least 15 migraine days per month.
  • Medication overuse is the most common reason why episodic migraine turns chronic.
  • Depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbances are common for those with chronic migraine.
  • Over 20% of chronic migraine sufferers are disabled, and the likelihood of disability increases sharply with the number of co-morbid conditions.
#CallforAbstracts for the Leading Pharma Event #Alzheimers2018 which is scheduled on December 03-04, 2018 at Madrid, Spain. To know more visit:

Tuesday, 26 June 2018

Natural Home Remedies for Migraine

Most people with this type of headache can manage the pain of mild-to-moderate attacks at home by:
  • Using a cold compress on the area of pain
  • Resting with pillows comfortably supporting the head or neck
  • Resting in a room with little or no sensory stimulation (from light, sound, or odors)
  • Withdrawing from stressful surroundings
  • Sleeping
  • Drinking a moderate amount of caffeine

What's the Outlook for a Person with Migraines?

Regular follow-up care with a doctor or other health care professional is a must. Keep a pain journal to monitor the frequency of attacks and the medications you use can be very helpful. It may take several doctor visits before an effective treatment plan is found.

After the headaches are under control, the prognosis is very good. Patience is key. As noted previously, it may take several attempts before an effective treatment plan is found.

No one treatment or drug is effective for every person. A drug that works well for one patient may not provide any relief for another. A combination of different medications is sometimes needed to treat resistant headaches.
International Conference on #Alzheimers, Dementia and Related #Neurodegenerative Diseases is scheduled on December 03-04, 2018 at Madrid, Spain... To know more download our brochure via:

Monday, 25 June 2018

Home Remedies and and Lifestyle changes to relieve Migraines

Migraine patients can play a significant role in managing their headache frequency and severity.

Keep track of when migraines occur by using a headache diary or log to track pain levels, triggers, and symptoms. This can help identify patterns that precede a migraine, as well as help identify factors that contribute to the development of the headache. Once these contributing factors are known, lifestyle modifications can lessen their impact. These modifications may include:

Maintain a regular schedule for eating and sleeping
  • Avoid certain foods that might cause a migraine
  • Keep well hydrated since dehydration has been identified as a migraine trigger for some people
  • Exercise regularly
Relaxation strategies and meditation also have been recognized as effective strategies to prevent migraines and decrease their severity.

Exercise and Migraine

  • Some people find that exercises that promote muscle relaxation can help manage the pain of migraines. Examples of types of mind-body exercises that can help encourage relaxation are:
  • Meditation
  • Progressive muscle relaxation
  • Guided imagery
  • Yoga

Diet and Migraine

There is no specific diet for people with migraines that will help relieve symptoms. However, certain foods can be triggers for migraines in susceptible people. These foods include:
  • Red wines
  • Aged cheeses
  • Preservatives used in smoked meats (nitrates)
  • Monosodium glutamate
  • Artificial sweeteners
  • Chocolate
  • Alcoholic beverages
  • Dairy products
Understanding the particular triggers of your migraines and avoiding them may help some sufferers decrease the frequency of attacks.

International Conference on #Alzheimers, Dementia and Related #Neurodegenerative Diseases is scheduled on December 03-04, 2018 at Madrid, Spain.. To know more download our brochure via: or mail us at

Friday, 22 June 2018

Migraine vs Headache

It is important to know the difference between a migraine attack and a headache.

Headaches can vary a great deal in how long they last, how severe they are, and why they happen. They may not occur in a recognizable pattern as migraine attacks do.

Migraine attacks will present as moderate-to-severe headaches on one side of the head that occur with other symptoms, such as nausea and vomiting. Migraine and non-migraine headaches are different and can indicate different causes.

To help identify a migraine headache, it can be useful to keep a diary of symptoms noting the time of onset, any triggers, the duration of the headaches, any noticeable signs or auras leading up to a migraine attack, and any other symptoms.

A headache diary should ideally be used for a minimum of 8 weeks and record:
  • the frequency, duration, and severity of headaches
  • any associated symptoms
  • all prescribed and OTC medications taken to relieve headache symptoms
  • possible triggers
  • the relationship of headaches to menstruation
The International Headache Society recommends the "5, 4, 3, 2, 1" criteria to diagnose migraines without aura.

This stands for:
  • 5 or more attacks with a duration of 4 hours to 3 days
  • At least two of the following qualities: Occurring on one side of the head, a pulsating quality, moderate-to-severe pain, and aggravation by routine physical activity
  • At least one additional symptom, such as nausea, vomiting, sensitivity to light, or sensitivity to sound.
During the initial diagnosis of migraines, the doctor may suggest a range of tests to exclude any other causes of a headache. These can include electroencephalography (EEG), CT, and MRI scans, or a spinal tap.

#Alzheimers2018 is coming up with a session on #Migraine.. Submit your #abstracts via: to join us at #Madrid, Spain on 03-04  December, 2018.

Thursday, 21 June 2018

When Should I See a Doctor for a Migraine?

Call a doctor or other health care professional if any of the following occur:
  • A change in frequency, severity, or features of the migraine commonly experienced
  • A new, progressive #headache that lasts for days
  • A headache brought on by coughing, sneezing, bearing down, straining while on the toilet, or other physical straining
  • Significant unintentional loss of body weight
  • Weakness or paralysis that lasts after the #headache
Go to a hospital emergency department if any of the following occur:
  • Having the worst headache ever, especially if the headache had a sudden onset
  • Headache associated with trauma to the head or loss of consciousness
  • Fever or stiff neck associated with headache
  • Decreased level of consciousness or confusion
  • Paralysis of one side of the body
  • Seizure

How Can I Tell If I Have a Migraine or Another Type of Headache?

The diagnosis of migraine headache rests solely on what a patient describes to a doctor or other medical professional. A doctor's physical examination of the patient typically reveals nothing out of the ordinary; however, a neurological examination will be performed to rule out other causes of headache.

Other causes include other types of headaches such as tension or cluster headache, stroke, tumor, inflammation of a blood vessel, and infection of the brain's coverings (meningitis) or of the sinuses. In these cases these tests may be ordered.
  • Blood tests
  • X-rays
  • CT scan or MRI of the head to look for bleeding, stroke, or tumor
  • A spinal tap (also called a lumbar puncture) to look for evidence of infection or bleeding
Upcoming #Pharma Event #Alzheimers2018 will be a great platform to present your #research of migraine. Register via: to be a part of the conference. 

Wednesday, 20 June 2018

Medications for Migraine

Migraines are often managed through a course of medication. There are many different types of migraine medication, including painkillers. Painkillers should be taken early in the progress of a migraine rather than allowing the headache to develop.

Over-the-counter (OTC) medications effective for treating migraines include:
  • naproxen
  • ibuprofen
  • acetaminophen
  • Other painkillers, such as aspirin with caffeine and acetaminophen, can often stop the headache or reduce pain.

Drugs that treat nausea

Some people who experience migraines will need to take medications that treat the accompanying symptoms.

Metoclopramide may be used to control certain symptoms, such as nausea and vomiting. Serotonin agonists, such as sumatriptan, may also be prescribed for severe migraines or for migraines that do not respond to OTC medications. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and antidepressants, such as tricyclics, are prescribed to reduce migraine symptoms, although they are not approved in all countries for this purpose.

Preventive medications

Migraine prevention begins with avoiding triggers. The main goals of preventive therapies are to reduce the frequency, pain level, and duration of migraine headaches and increase the effectiveness of other therapies.

There are several medications and supplements that help prevent migraine attacks, including:
  • antidepressants
  • coenzyme Q10
  • herbal extracts, such as feverfew
  • magnesium citrate
  • vitamin B-12 supplements
  • riboflavin
It is worth noting that some people can experience a medication overuse headache (MOH), or rebound headache. This can occur after taking too many medications in an attempt to prevent migraine attacks.

#Alzheimer2018 is coming up with a session on #Migraine, submit your abstracts via: to join at Madrid, Spain on December 03-04, 2018.

Tuesday, 19 June 2018

Treatment of Migraine

There is currently no single cure for migraines. Treatment is aimed at preventing a full-blown attack, and alleviating the symptoms that occur.

Lifestyle alterations that might help reduce the frequency of migraines include:
  • getting enough sleep
  • reducing stress
  • drinking plenty of water
  • avoiding certain foods
  • regular physical exercise
  • Some people also find that special diets can help, such as gluten-free.
Consider seeking further treatment if the above changes do not relieve the symptoms or frequency of migraines. The treatment of migraine symptoms focuses on avoiding triggers, controlling symptoms, and taking medicine.


The last decade has seen the development of new approaches to the treatment of migraines. A doctor may administer an injection of botulinum toxin, or Botox, to the extra cranial sensory branches of the trigeminal and cervical spinal nerves. These are a group of nerves in the face and neck linked to migraine reactions.

A 2014 review also showed that surgical decompression of these nerves could reduce or eliminate migraines in patients who do not respond to first-line treatment.

Join us at the International #Conference on #Alzheimers, #Dementia and Related #Neurodegenerative Diseases  which is scheduled on December 03-04, 2018 at Madrid, Spain... Download our brochure to know more via:

Monday, 18 June 2018

Triggers for Migraine

Many factors have been identified as migraine triggers.

1. Normal hormone fluctuations, which occur with regular menstrual cycles, and some types of oral contraceptives (birth control pills).

2. Various foods such as:
  • Red wines
  • Aged cheeses
  • Preservatives used in smoked meats (nitrates)
  • Monosodium glutamate
  • Artificial sweeteners
  • Chocolate
  • Dairy products
  • Oversleeping
  • Alcohol beverages
3. Stress

4. Exposure to strong stimuli such as bright lights, loud noises, or strong smells.

5. Changes in barometric pressure have been described as leading to migraine headaches.

Not every individual who has migraines will experience one when exposed to these triggers. 
If a person is unsure what specific triggers might cause a migraine, maintaining a headache diary can be beneficial to identify those individual factors that lead to migraine.

International Conference on #Alzheimers, #Dementia and Related #Neurodegenerative Diseases is scheduled on December 03-04, 2018 at Madrid, Spain with the theme of Leading #Advancements and #Remedies in the #Neurodegenerative Disorders... Register now to be a part of our conference via:

Friday, 15 June 2018

Fast Facts on Migraines

  • Some people who experience migraines can clearly identify triggers or factors that cause the headaches, such as allergies, light, and stress.
  • Some people get a warning symptom before the start of the migraine headache.
  • Many people with migraine can prevent a full-blown attack by recognizing and acting upon the warning signs.
  • Over-the-counter (OTC) medications can eliminate or reduce pain, and specific medications can help some people with migraine.
  • People who have severe attacks can take preventive medicines.
International Conference on #Alzheimers, Dementia and Related #Neurodegenerative Diseases is scheduled on December 03-04, 2018 at Madrid, Spain with the theme of Leading Advancements and Remedies in the #Neurodegenerative Disorders..  Submit your abstracts to be a part of the conference.. Submit via: To know more download our brochure:

Thursday, 14 June 2018

Types of Migraine

  • Common migraine (or absence migraine) has no "aura.” About 80% of migraines are common.
  • Classic migraines (migraine with aura) present with an aura before the headache and are more severe than common migraines.
  • A silent or acephalic migraine is a migraine without head pain but with aura and other aspects of migraine.
  • A hemiplegic migraine can have symptoms that mimic a stroke, such as weakness on one side of the body, loss of sensation, or feeling ‘pins and needles.’
  • A retinal migraine causes temporary vision loss in one eye, which can last from minutes to months, but it is usually reversible. This is often a sign of a more serious medical problem, and patients should seek medical care.
  • A chronic migraine is a migraine headache that lasts for more than 15 days per month.
  • Status migrainosus is a constant migraine attack that lasts more than 72 hours.

To know more... Join us at the International Conference on #Alzheimers, Dementia and Related Neurodegenerative Diseases which is scheduled on December 03-04, 2018 at Madrid, Spain. 

Wednesday, 13 June 2018

Symptoms of Migraine

Migraines often begin in childhood, adolescence or early adulthood. Migraines may progress through four stages: prodrome, aura, headache and post-drome, though you may not experience all stages.

One or two days before a migraine, you may notice subtle changes that warn of an upcoming migraine, including:
  • Constipation
  • Mood changes, from depression to euphoria
  • Food cravings
  • Neck stiffness
  • Increased thirst and urination
  • Frequent yawning
Aura may occur before or during migraines. Most people experience migraines without aura. Auras are symptoms of the nervous system. They are usually visual disturbances, such as flashes of light or wavy, zigzag vision.

Sometimes auras can also be touching sensations (sensory), movement (motor) or speech (verbal) disturbances. Your muscles may get weak, or you may feel as though someone is touching you.

Each of these symptoms usually begins gradually, builds up over several minutes and lasts for 20 to 60 minutes. Examples of migraine aura include:
  • Visual phenomena, such as seeing various shapes, bright spots or flashes of light
  • Vision loss
  • Pins and needles sensations in an arm or leg
  • Weakness or numbness in the face or one side of the body
  • Difficulty speaking
  • Hearing noises or music
  • Uncontrollable jerking or other movements
  • Sometimes, a migraine with aura may be associated with limb weakness (hemiplegic migraine).
A migraine usually lasts from four to 72 hours if untreated. The frequency with which headaches occur varies from person to person. Migraines may be rare, or strike several times a month. During a migraine, you may experience:
  • Pain on one side or both sides of your head
  • Pain that feels throbbing or pulsing
  • Sensitivity to light, sounds, and sometimes smells and touch
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Blurred vision
  • Light-headedness, sometimes followed by fainting
The final phase, known as post-drome, occurs after a migraine attack. You may feel drained and washed out, while some people feel elated. For about 24 hours, you may also experience:
  • Confusion
  • Moodiness
  • Dizziness
  • Weakness
  • Sensitivity to light and sound
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Tuesday, 12 June 2018


Migraine is a neurological condition that can cause multiple symptoms. It’s frequently characterized by intense, debilitating headaches. Symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, difficulty speaking, numbness or tingling, and sensitivity to light and sound. Migraines often run in families and affect all ages.

The diagnosis of migraine headaches is determined based on clinical history, reported symptoms, and by ruling out other causes. The most common categories of migraine headache are those without aura (previously known as common migraines) and those with aura (previously known as classic migraines).

Migraines can begin in childhood or may not occur until early adulthood. Women are more likely than men to have migraines. Family history is one of the most common risk factors for having migraines.

Symptoms include:
  • Eye pain
  • Sensitivity to light or sound
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Severe pain, usually on one side of the head that some individuals describe as "pounding
International Conference on #Alzheimers, Dementia and Related Neurodegenerative Diseases is coming up with a session on #Migraine.. Submit your abstracts via: to present your research.. 

Monday, 11 June 2018

Schilder’s Disease


Schilder’s disease is a very rare, progressive, degenerative, demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) that usually begins in childhood and young adulthood (mostly males between the ages of 7 and 12).
  • Schilder’s disease is thought to be a variant of MS.
  • As the disease progresses, larger and larger patches of demyelination occur, interfering with motor movement, speech, personality, hearing and vision, ultimately affecting the vital functions of respiration, heart rate, blood pressure.
  • Schilder's disease is also known as diffuse cerebral sclerosis, diffuse cerebral sclerosis of Schilder and myelinoclastic diffuse sclerosis.
  • Schilder’s disease is not the same as Addison-Schilder disease (adrenoleukodystophy), a rare inherited disease characterized by a biochemical abnormality in the myelin.
What causes Schilder’s disease?
The underlying cause of Schilder’s disease is unknown. Schilder’s disease often occurs shortly after an infectious illness and may begin with headache, a general feeling of discomfort or illness, and fever. Symptoms are caused by widespread patches of demyelination throughout the brain and spinal cord, resulting in slowed transmission of nerve signals.

International Conference on #Alzheimers, #Dementia and Related Neurodegenerative Diseases is coming up with the theme of Leading #Advancements and Remedies in the #Neurodegenerative Disorders on August 27-28 at Madrid, Spain.

Saturday, 9 June 2018

Transverse Myelitis

Transverse myelitis is a neurological disorder caused by inflammation (swelling) across both sides of one level or segment of the spinal cord. Inflammation can damage or destroy myelin, the fatty protective substance that covers nerve cell fibers. This damage causes scars that interrupt the communication between the nerves in the spinal cord and the rest of the body. Most people affected by transverse myelitis will have only one attack; a small percentage may have more than one attack.

Transverse myelitis can appear as the first symptom in conditions such as multiple sclerosis (MS) or neuromyelitis optica (NMO). A person with transverse myelitis who also has an abnormal brain MRI with more than two lesions has an increased chance (as high as 90 percent) of going on to develop MS.

What causes transverse myelitis?
The exact cause of the damage to the spinal cord has not yet been determined with certainty but it is thought that it may be due to an autoimmune reaction to a viral or bacterial infection. In autoimmune diseases, the immune system mistakes the body’s own tissue as foreign, and attacks it, causing inflammation (swelling) that results in damage to the myelin.

An infection precedes the onset of transverse myelitis about 50% of the time.
  • Transverse myelitis often develops following viral infections such as varicella zoster (the virus that causes chicken pox and shingles), herpes simplex, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr, influenza, echovirus, HIV, hepatitis A, and rubella.
  • Bacterial skin infections, otitis media (middle-ear infections) and Mycoplasma pneumonia (bacterial pneumonia) have been associated with transverse myelitis.

Some cancers may trigger an abnormal immune response that my lead to transverse myelitis.

Who gets transverse myelitis, and when?
Transverse myelitis occurs in adults and children, in males and females and in all races.
  • Females have a higher risk of transverse myelitis than males.
  • No genetic pattern is known. Transverse myelitis is not related to family history.
  • The highest number of new cases in a given year occur between age 10 and 19 and between age 30 and 39 years.
  • The symptoms of transverse myelitis can appear suddenly, developing over hours to several days or more gradually developing over a period of 1 to 4 weeks.

It is estimated that about 1,400 new cases of transversemyelitis are diagnosed each year in the United States. It is estimated that about 33,000 Americans have some type of disability resulting from transverse myelitis.

The annual incidence of transverse myelitis ranges from 1.34 to 4.60 cases per million, but increases to 24.6 cases per million if acquired demyelinating diseases like MS and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) are included.

#Alzheimers2018 will be a great platform for researchers from the field of Neurodegenerative Disorders to present their work.. Submit your abstracts to be a part of the Global Event via:

Friday, 8 June 2018

Balo’s Disease


Balo’s disease is a rare demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) in which the myelin (the fatty substance covering nerve fibers) is damaged. Balo’s disease shares features with other demyelinating diseases and — while some consider it a distinct disorder — most MS specialists view it as a rare variant  of multiple sclerosis (MS).

Attacks from Balo's disease can proceed rapidly over weeks or months, usually without remission (a rapidly progressive course); a relapsing course (periods of symptoms followed by improvement or disappearance of symptoms) can also occur, or a person may experience a single attack (monophasic course).

What causes Balo’s disease?
The cause of Balo’s disease is not known, however, some studies indicate that autoimmune factors may play a role in its development. Autoimmune disorders are caused when the body's natural defenses against "foreign" or invading organisms begin to attack healthy tissue for unknown reasons resulting in inflammation (swelling).

The cause of the recovery seen in some patients that have or have not received treatment is also not known.

Who gets Balo’s disease, and when?
Balo's disease appears to be most common in Asians and in people from the Philippines; it affects males and females with similar frequency. Balo's disease usually appears in adulthood but childhood cases have been reported.

How is Balo's disease different from MS?
Balo's disease is sometimes considered a variant of MS because so many of the symptoms are similar to those seen in MS. In Balo’s disease, the unusual, concentric ring pattern seen on MRI images and in tissue specimens is not typically seen in MS.

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Thursday, 7 June 2018

Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) (contd.)

Who gets ADEM, and when?
Although ADEM can appear at any age, children are more likely than adults to develop it. More than 80 percent of childhood cases occur in patients younger than 10 years. Most of the remaining cases occur between the ages of 10 and 20 but ADEM is sometimes (rarely) diagnosed in adults. ADEM is thought to affect 1 in every 125,000 to 250,000 individuals in a given year. Five percent of these cases could be associated with vaccination.
  • ADEM appears a little more frequently in boys than girls (about 60 percent of the time) with a male to female ratio of 1.3 : 1.
  • ADEM appears more often in winter and spring.
  • ADEM occurs in all parts of the world and in all ethnic groups.

How is ADEM different from MS?

  • In most but not all cases, ADEM occurs only once, while patients with MS have further, repeated attacks of inflammation in their brains and spinal cords.
  • In most cases, ADEM patients do not develop new scars on a repeat MRI scan whereas MS patients typically experience new scars on their follow-up MRI scans.
  • Typical symptoms of ADEM such as fever, headache and confusion, vomiting, and seizures are not usually seen in people with MS, although they can be seen in pediatric MS onset especially in patients younger than 11 years.
  • Sometimes the pattern of MRI abnormalities helps differentiate these two disorders.
  • Most patients with MS are treated with ongoing medication to prevent attacks. Patients with ADEM do not require such medication.
  • ADEM occurs more frequently in males; MS more frequently in females.
  • ADEM is more common in children; MS is more common in adults.
  • ADEM occurs more frequently in winter and spring; MS has no seasonal variation.
Join us at the International Conference on #Alzheimers, Dementia and Related #Neurodegenerative Diseases at Madrid, Spain on August 27-28, 2018.. Submit your abstracts via:

Wednesday, 6 June 2018

Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM)


Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a brief but intense attack of inflammation (swelling) in the brain and spinal cord and occasionally the optic nerves that damages the brain’s myelin (the white coating of nerve fibers). Other terms used to refer to ADEM include post-infectious encephalomyelitis and immune-mediated encephalomyelitis.

ADEM is sometimes difficult to distinguish from multiplesclerosis (MS) because the symptoms common to both "demyelinating" disorders include loss of vision, weakness, numbness and loss of balance. Both ADEM and MS involve immune-mediated responses to myelin in the brain and spinal cord.

What causes ADEM?
The cause of ADEM is not clear but in more than half of the cases, symptoms appear following a viral or bacterial infection, usually a sore throat or cough and very rarely following vaccination. ADEM is thought to be an autoimmune condition where the body’s immune system mistakenly identifies its own healthy cells and tissues as foreign and mounts an attack against them. This attack results in inflammation.  Most cases of ADEM begin about 7 to 14 days after an infection or up to three months following a vaccination. In some cases of ADEM, no preceding event is identified.

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Tuesday, 5 June 2018

Which types of doctors and specialists treat multiple sclerosis?

Speech Pathologist: A speech pathologist can help patients improve speech clarity, and some can even work on cognitive exercises for patients who have problems with memory. If swallowing problems are identified, speech pathologists can help determine the cause and whether therapy will help improve swallowing ability or if dietary changes are needed.

Primary Care Provider: A primary care provider such as a family doctor or internist is needed to help keep patients with MS in good health by keeping track of blood pressure, cholesterol, glucose, immunization status, and other factors.

Radiologist: A radiologist reads the imaging studies obtained to monitor the status of patients with MS by comparing current studies to prior studies, doctors can determine if the disease has stabilized.

Physical Therapist: Physical therapists work to help patients regain mobility or strength. They also help patients determine how maintain their strength and mobility after a chronic disease is diagnosed.

Occupational Therapist: Occupational therapists often work closely with physical therapists to help with mobility issues due to MS. Moreover, these therapists also teach people with MS how to adjust or modify things in their surroundings and homes by using tools or actions to safely perform daily activities.

Clinical Psychologist: A clinical psychologist can help patients with MS who are experiencing depression, anxiety, or who need help in coping with their diagnosis. Psychologists provide counseling or psychotherapy; they do not prescribe medications. On occasion, they work closely with psychiatrists who determine if medications are needed, and if so, which medications to prescribe.

Neurologist: A neurologist is a doctor who has specialized training in diseases of the brain and nervous system. Some neurologists have additional training in treating multiple sclerosis.

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Monday, 4 June 2018

Experimental Therapies for Multiple Sclerosis

Experimental therapies being explored to treat or possibly cure multiple sclerosis include stem cell transplantation. Preliminary results from one study, which followed patients for 5 years suggested a decreased relapse rate and improvement in disability. While promising, these results need to be evaluated carefully before this treatment is approved.

In 2009, a vascular surgeon proposed that multiple sclerosis was caused by venous abnormalities that responsible for the true cause of multiple sclerosis was venous insufficiency. This proposed theory was termed chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI). A number of studies have tried to confirm this theory since it would markedly change the approach to treating multiple sclerosis. However, most of the recent data has not shown a causal relationship between any venous insufficiency and multiple sclerosis. Ongoing studies are being conducted, but some experts suggest the more recent findings in the ongoing findings will disprove this hypothesis.

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Friday, 1 June 2018

How common is Multiple Sclerosis?

Who develops the disease?
  • Multiple sclerosis occurs predominantly in younger persons, with those aged 15 to 60 most likely to be diagnosed.
  • The average age of diagnosis is about 30 years; however, multiple sclerosis has been identified at all ages.
  • While multiple sclerosis can occur in children, this is very rare.
  • About 2.5 million people worldwide have been diagnosed with MS; of those, about 400,000 live in the United States.
  • Women are about twice as likely as men to develop multiple sclerosis.

Can children and teenagers develop multiple sclerosis (pediatric MS)?

Children and teenagers can have MS (pediatric MS). It is estimated that about 8,000 to 10,000 children and teens up to 18 years old have been diagnosed with pediatric MS. Moreover, an additional 10,000 to 15,000 children and teens have had at least one symptom of the disease.

Almost all children diagnosed with pediatric MS have the relapsing-remitting MS type; however, additional symptoms often not experienced in adults with MS may include seizures and mental status changes like lethargy.

Children and teens with multiple sclerosis are treated with the same therapies as adults, but they are considered “off label” for treating children, (not an FDA approved use for the drug, but it is/may be effective for some people with the condition). 

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Types of Multiple Sclerosis

1. Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS)
Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) is the most common form of MS.

People with this form of the disease develop symptoms that respond to treatment and then resolve. The development of symptoms is often referred to as an exacerbation of the disease. Episodes of remission may last for weeks to years.

Secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) is diagnosed when the problems caused by an exacerbation don't fully resolve during a remission. This often occurs in patients who were initially diagnosed with RRMS. Over time, patients are identified with progressive debility.

3. Primary-progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS)
Primary-progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) progresses over time, without episodes of remission or improvement of symptoms.

4. Progressive-relapsing multiple sclerosis (PRMS)
Progressive-relapsing multiple sclerosis (PRMS) is identified when patients experience escalating symptoms over time, as well as intermittent episodes of remission.

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3 Days more to go for Alzheimers 2018 Conference

International  # Conference  on  # Alzheimers , Dementia and Related  # Neurodegenerative  Diseases on December 03-04, 2018 in Madrid, Spa...