Monday, 30 April 2018

Symptoms of Alzheimer's

The most common early symptom of Alzheimer's is difficulty remembering newly learned information.

Just like the rest of our bodies, our brains change as we age. Most of us eventually notice some slowed thinking and occasional problems with remembering certain things. However, serious memory loss, confusion and other major changes in the way our minds work may be a sign that brain cells are failing.

The most common early symptom of Alzheimer's is difficulty remembering newly learned information because Alzheimer's changes typically begin in the part of the brain that affects learning. As Alzheimer's advances through the brain it leads to increasingly severe symptoms, including disorientation, mood and behavior changes; deepening confusion about events, time and place; unfounded suspicions about family, friends and professional caregivers; more serious memory loss and behavior changes; and difficulty speaking, swallowing and walking.

To know more join us at the International #Conference on #Alzheimers, #Dementia and Related #Neurodegenerative #Diseases https://bit.ly/2HlLuhx 

Thursday, 26 April 2018

Changes Observed in Brain

Alzheimer’s disease is an irreversible, progressive brain disorder that slowly destroys memory and thinking skills, and eventually the ability to carry out the simplest tasks. In most people with Alzheimer’s, symptoms first appear in their mid-60s. Estimates vary, but experts suggest that more than 5 million Americans may have Alzheimer’s.

Scientists continue to unravel the complex brain changes involved in the onset and progression of Alzheimer’s disease. It seems likely that damage to the brain starts a decade or more before memory and other cognitive problems appear. During this preclinical stage of Alzheimer’s disease, people seem to be symptom-free, but toxic changes are taking place in the brain. Abnormal deposits of proteins form amyloid plaques and tau tangles throughout the brain, and once-healthy neurons stop functioning, lose connections with other neurons, and die.

The damage initially appears to take place in the hippocampus, the part of the brain essential in forming memories. As more neurons die, additional parts of the brain are affected, and they begin to shrink. By the final stage of Alzheimer’s, damage is widespread, and brain tissue has shrunk significantly.

Speaker Opportunities are available at the International #Conference on #Alzheimers, #Dementia and Related #Neurodegenerative #Diseases... Join us at Madrid, Spain on 27-28 August, 2018.https://bit.ly/2Izz5FY 

Wednesday, 25 April 2018

Why Alzheimer's Disease is Caused?

Alzheimer's disease is caused by parts of the brain shrinking (atrophy), which affects the structure and function of particular brain areas. It's not known exactly what causes this process to begin. However, in the brains of people with Alzheimer's disease, scientists have found amyloid plaques (abnormal deposits of protein), neurofibrillary tangles (containing tau) and imbalances in a chemical called acetylcholine. It's also common to have a degree of vascular damage in the brain. These reduce the effectiveness of healthy neurons. Over time, this damage spreads to several areas of the brain. The first areas affected are responsible for memories.

Increased risk
Although it's still unknown what triggers Alzheimer'sdisease, several factors are known to increase your risk of developing the condition.

Age
Age is the single most significant factor in the development of Alzheimer's disease. The likelihood of developing the condition doubles every five years after you reach 65 years of age. However, it's not just older people who are at risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. Around 1 in 20 people with the condition are under 65. This is called early onset Alzheimer's disease and it can affect people from around the age of 40.

Family history
The genes you inherit from your parents can contribute to your risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, although the actual increase in risk is small if you have a close family member with the condition.

Down's syndrome
People with Down's syndrome are at a higher risk of developing Alzheimer's disease. This is because the genetic fault that causes Down's syndrome can also cause amyloid plaques to build up in the brain over time, which can lead to Alzheimer's disease in some people.

Head injuries
People who have had a severe head injury have been found to be at higher risk of developing Alzheimer's disease.

Cardiovascular disease
Research shows that several lifestyle factors and conditions associated with cardiovascular disease can increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease.

These include:
  • ·         smoking
  • ·         obesity
  • ·         diabetes
  • ·         high blood pressure
  • ·         high cholesterol

You can help reduce your risk by:
  • ·         stopping smoking
  • ·         eating a healthy, balanced diet
  • ·         leading an active life, both physically and mentally
  • ·         losing weight if you need to
  • ·         drinking less alcohol
  • ·         having regular health checks as you get older
To know more join us at the International Conference on Alzheimers, Dementia and Related Neurodegenerative Diseases at Madrid, Spain on 27-28 August, 2018.

Monday, 23 April 2018

Stages of Alzheimer's Disease (cont)

These are the last three stages in Alzheimer's Disease
Stage 5: Moderately Severe Decline
During the fifth stage of Alzheimer’s, patients begin to need help with many day to day activities. People in stage five of the disease may experience:
  • Significant confusion
  • Inability to recall simple details about themselves such as their own phone number
  • Difficulty dressing appropriately
On the other hand, patients in stage five maintain a modicum of functionality. They typically can still bathe and toilet independently. They also usually still know their family members and some detail about their personal histories, especially their childhood and youth.

Stage 6: Severe Decline
Patients with the sixth stage of Alzheimer’s disease need constant supervision and frequently require professional care. Symptoms include:
  • Confusion or unawareness of environment and surroundings
  • Major personality changes and potential behavior problems
  • The need for assistance with activities of daily living such as toileting and bathing
  • Inability to recognize faces except closest friends and relatives
  • Inability to remember most details of personal history
  • Loss of bowel and bladder control
  • Wandering
Stages 7: Very Severe Decline
Stage seven is the final stage of Alzheimer’s disease. Because Alzheimer’s disease is a terminal illness, patients in stage seven are nearing death. In stage seven of the disease, patients lose ability to respond to their environment or communicate. While they may still be able to utter words and phrases, they have no insight into their condition and need assistance with all activities of daily living. In the final stages of the illness, patients may lose their ability to swallow.

To know more about Alzheimer's and various other Neurodegenerative Diseases, Join us at Alzheimers 2018 https://bit.ly/2qkhxWG

Alzheimer's Disease: Stages

Every person with Alzheimer’s disease experiences the disease differently, but patients tend to experience a similar trajectory from the beginning of the illness to its merciful end. The precise number of stages is somewhat arbitrary. Some experts use a simple three-phase model (early, moderate and end), while others have found a granular breakdown to be a more useful aid to understanding the progression of the illness.

Stage 1: No Impairment
During this stage, Alzheimer’s disease is not detectable and no memory problems or other symptoms of dementia are evident.

Stage 2: Very Mild Decline
The senior may notice minor memory problems or lose things around the house, although not to the point where the memory loss can easily be distinguished from normal age related memory loss. The person will still do well on memory tests and the disease is unlikely to be detected by physicians or loved ones.

Stage 3: Mild Decline
At this stage, the friends and family members of the senior may begin to notice memory and cognitive problems. Performance on memory and cognitive tests are affected and physicians will be able to detect impaired cognitive function.
Patients in stage 3 will have difficulty in many areas including:
  • finding the right word during conversations
  • remembering names of new acquaintances
  • planning and organizing
  • People with stage three Alzheimer’s may also frequently lose personal possessions, including valuables.
Stage 4: Moderate Decline
In stage four of Alzheimer’s disease clear cut symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease are apparent. Patients with stage four Alzheimer’s disease:
  • Have difficulty with simple arithmetic
  • May forget details about their life histories
  • Have poor short term memory (may not recall what they ate for breakfast, for example)
  • Inability to manage finance and pay bills
To Know more Join us at the International Conference on Alzheimers, Dementia and Related Neurodegenerative Diseases https://bit.ly/2p9olWH

Thursday, 19 April 2018

Statistics of Dementia

Someone in the world develops dementia every 3 seconds. There were an estimated 46.8 million people worldwide living with dementia in 2015 and this number is believed to be close to 50 million people in 2017. This number will almost double every 20 years, reaching 75 million in 2030 and 131.5 million in 2050. Much of the increase will be in developing countries. Already 58% of people with dementia live in low and middle income countries, but by 2050 this will rise to 68%. The fastest growth in the elderly population is taking place in China, India, and their south Asian and western Pacific neighbors.

Demographic ageing is a worldwide process that shows the successes of improved health care over the last century. Many are now living longer and healthier lives and so the world population has a greater proportion of older people. Dementia mainly affects older people, although there is a growing awareness of cases that start before the age of 65.

There are over 9.9 million new cases of dementia each year worldwide, implying one new case every 3.2 seconds.

To know more join us at International Conference on Alzheimers, Dementia and Related Neurodegenerative Diseases... https://bit.ly/2p9olWH

Risk Factors of Dementia

Certain risk factors are known to be associated with dementia. However, age is the biggest predictor. Other risk factors include:
  • Smoking and alcohol use.
  • Atherosclerosis (cardiovascular disease causing the arteries to narrow).
  • High levels of "bad" cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein).
  • Above-average blood levels of homocysteine (a type of amino acid).
  • Diabetes.
  • Mild cognitive impairment can sometimes, but not always, lead to dementia.

This means you can help reduce your risk of dementia by:

  • Eating a healthy, balanced diet.
  • Maintaining a healthy weight.
  • Exercising regularly.
  • Keeping alcohol to a minimum.
  • Stopping smoking.
  • Keeping blood pressure at a healthy level.
To know more join us at International Conference on Alzheimers, Dementia and Related Neurodegenerative Diseases... https://bit.ly/2p9olWH

Wednesday, 18 April 2018

Dementia Treatments

Brain cell death cannot be reversed, so there is no known cure for degenerative dementia.
Management of disorders such as Alzheimer's disease is instead focused on providing care and treating symptoms rather than their underlying cause.

If dementia symptoms are due to a reversible, non-degenerative cause, however, treatment may be possible to prevent or halt further brain tissue damage.

Examples include injury, medication effects, and vitamin deficiency.

Symptoms of Alzheimer's disease can be reduced by some medications. There are four drugs, called cholinesterase inhibitors, approved for use in the U.S.:
  • donepezil (brand name Aricept)
  • galantamine (Reminyl)
  • rivastigmine (Exelon)
  • tacrine (Cognex)
A different kind of drug, memantine (Namenda), an NMDA receptor antagonist, may also be used, alone or in combination with a cholinesterase inhibitor.

Cholinesterase inhibitors can also help with the behavioral elements of Parkinson's disease. To know more join us at Alzheimers2018 

Tuesday, 17 April 2018

Diagnosing Dementia: Second Part

The second part of the test probes someone close to the patient and includes six questions to find out whether the patient has:
  • become less able to remember recent events or conversations
  • begun struggling to find the right words or using inappropriate ones
  • found difficulty managing money or medications
  • needed more help with transport (without the reason being, for example, injury)
  • If the test does suggest memory loss, standard investigations are then recommended, including routine blood tests and a CT brain scan.
Clinical tests will identify, or rule out, treatable causes of memory loss and help to narrow down potential causes, such as Alzheimer's disease.

The mini-mental state examination (MMSE) is a cognitive test which measures:
  • orientation to time and place
  • word recall
  • language abilities
  • attention and calculation
  • visuospatial skills
The MMSE is used to help diagnose dementia caused by Alzheimer's disease and also to rate its severity and whether drug treatment is needed.


Monday, 16 April 2018

Diagnosing Dementia

The first step in testing memory performance and cognitive health involves standard questions and tasks. Research has shown that dementia cannot be reliably diagnosed without using the standard tests below, completing them fully, and recording all the answers; however, diagnosis also takes account of other factors.

Cognitive DementiaTests

Today's cognitive dementia tests are widely used and have been verified as a reliable way of indicating dementia. They have changed little since being established in the early 1970s. The abbreviated mental test score has ten questions, which include:
What is your age?
What is the time, to the nearest hour?
What is the year?
What is your date of birth?

Each correct answer gets one point; scoring six points or fewer suggests cognitive impairment.
The General Practitioner Assessment of Cognition (GPCOG) test includes an added element for recording the observations of relatives and caregivers.

Designed for doctors, this sort of test may be the first formal assessment of a person's mental ability. 
To know more Join us at the International Conference on Alzheimers, Dementia and Related Neurodegenerative Diseases https://bit.ly/2p9olWH 

Friday, 13 April 2018

Cause of Dementia

Dementias can be caused by brain cell death, and neurodegenerative disease - progressive brain cell death that happens over time - is associated with most dementias. However it is not known if the dementia causes the brain cell death, or the brain cell death causes the dementia. But, as well as progressive brain cell death, like that seen in Alzheimer's disease, dementia can be caused by a head injury, a stroke, or a brain tumor, among other causes.

Vascular dementia (also called multi-infarct dementia) - resulting from brain cell death caused by conditions such as cerebrovascular disease, for example, stroke. This prevents normal blood flow, depriving brain cells of oxygen.

Injury - Post-traumatic dementia is directly related to brain cell death caused by injury.

Some types of traumatic brain injury - Particularly if repetitive, such as those received by sports players - have been linked to certain dementias appearing later in life. Evidence is weak, however, that a single brain injury raises the likelihood of having a degenerative dementia such as Alzheimer's disease.

Dementia can also be caused by:

Prion diseases - For instance, CJD (Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease).

HIV infection - How the virus damages brain cells is not certain, but it is known to occur.

Reversible factors - Some dementias can be treated by reversing the effects of underlying causes, including medication interactions, depression, vitamin deficiencies, and thyroid abnormalities.   

To know more join us at https://bit.ly/2p9olWH

Thursday, 12 April 2018

Types of Dementia

There are several types of dementia, including:
  • Alzheimer's disease is characterized by "plaques" between the dying cells in the brain and "tangles" within the cells (both are due to protein abnormalities). The brain tissue in a person with Alzheimer's has progressively fewer nerve cells and connections, and the total brain size shrinks.
  • Dementia with Lewy bodies is a neurodegenerative condition linked to abnormal structures in the brain. The brain changes involve a protein called alpha-synuclein.
  • Mixed dementia refers to a diagnosis of two or three types occurring together. For instance, a person may show both Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia at the same time.
  • Parkinson's disease is also marked by the presence of Lewy bodies. Although Parkinson's is often considered a disorder of movement, it can also lead to dementia symptoms.
  • Huntington's disease is characterized by specific types of uncontrolled movements but also includes dementia.
Other disorders leading to symptoms of dementia include:
  • Frontotemporal dementia also known as Pick's disease.
  • Normal pressure hydrocephalus when excess cerebrospinal fluid accumulates in the brain.
  • Posterior cortical atrophy resembles changes seen in Alzheimer's disease but in a different part of the brain.
  • Down syndrome increases the likelihood of young-onset Alzheimer's.
To know more join us at https://bit.ly/2p9olWH 

Wednesday, 11 April 2018

Early Signs of Dementia

It includes:
  • Changes in short-term memory.
  • Changes in mood.
  • Trouble finding the right words.
  • Apathy.
  • Confusion.
  • Being repetitive.
  • Finds it hard to follow a storyline.
  • Trouble completing everyday tasks.
  • Poor sense of direction.
  • Difficulty adapting to changes.

Possible Symptoms of Dementia:

A person with dementia may show any of the symptoms listed below, mostly due to memory loss.

Some symptoms they may notice themselves, others may only be noticed by caregivers or healthcare workers.
  • Recent memory loss - a sign of this might be asking the same question repeatedly.
  • Difficulty completing familiar tasks - for example, making a drink or cooking a meal.
  • Problems communicating - difficulty with language; forgetting simple words or using the wrong ones.
  • Disorientation - getting lost on a previously familiar street, for example.
  • Problems with abstract thinking - for instance, dealing with money.
  • Misplacing things - forgetting the location of everyday items such as keys, or wallets, for example.
  • Mood changes - sudden and unexplained changes in outlook or disposition.
  • Personality changes - perhaps becoming irritable, suspicious or fearful.
  • Loss of initiative - showing less interest in starting something or going somewhere.
As the patient ages, late-stage dementia symptoms tend to worsen. 
To know more join us at https://bit.ly/2p9olWH

Tuesday, 10 April 2018

Dementia

It is a collective term used to describe various symptoms of cognitive decline, such as forgetfulness. It is a symptom of several underlying diseases and brain disorders. Dementia is not a single disease in itself, but a general term to describe symptoms of impairment in memory, communication, and thinking. While the likelihood of having dementia increases with age, it is not a normal part of aging.

Statistics

An analysis of the most recent census estimates that 4.7 million people aged 65 years or older in the United States were living with Alzheimer's disease in 2010. The Alzheimer's Association estimates that:
  • Just over a tenth of people aged 65 years or more have Alzheimer's disease
  • This proportion rises to about a third of people aged 85 and older
  • Alzheimer's accounts for 60-80 percent of all cases of dementia

Fast Facts on Dementia

  • There are an estimated 47.5 million dementia sufferers worldwide
  • One new case of dementia is diagnosed every 4 seconds
  • Dementia mostly affects older people but is not a normal part of aging

Monday, 9 April 2018

Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

PSP is a rare progressive movement disorder, sometimes known as Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome. It affects many areas of the brain and people typically have symptoms similar to those of Parkinson's disease. As with Parkinson's disease, there may be a tremor (involuntary shaking of the body and limbs), but this is much less prominent in PSP. The specific parts of the brain that are damaged include the regions that control eye movements and those that keep a person steady when they are walking, resulting in frequent falls. The cause of the damage that occurs in PSP is unknown, but is linked to abnormal deposits of a protein called tau.

Symptoms

PSP mainly occurs in people over the age of 60, although it occasionally affects younger people. One striking symptom is paralysis of eye movements and problems with double vision. Other symptoms include stiff or slow movements, difficulties walking and speaking, swallowing problems and personality changes.

Treatment

Although the person may also have problems with their speed of thinking and memory, they will remain aware of what is going on around them. In most cases, the person is more likely to be described as 'experiencing cognitive difficulties' rather than 'having dementia'. However, a small proportion of people with frontotemporal dementia also develop PSP as an 'overlapping' condition. There is no cure for PSP but there are medications available to help control some symptoms.

Saturday, 7 April 2018

Posterior Cortical Atrophy (PCA)

Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), also known as Benson's syndrome, is a rare degenerative condition in which damage occurs at the back (posterior region) of the brain. In the vast majority of people, the cause of PCA is Alzheimer's disease.

Symptoms

The first symptoms of PCA tend to occur when people are in their mid-50s or early 60s. However, the first signs are often subtle and so it may be some time before a formal diagnosis is made.

Initially, people with PCA tend to have a relatively well-preserved memory but experience problems with their vision, such as difficulty recognising faces and objects in pictures. They may also have problems with literacy and numeracy. These tasks are controlled by the back part of the brain, where the initial damage in PCA occurs.

Treatment and Cure

As damage in the brain spreads and the disease progresses, people develop the more typical symptoms of Alzheimer's disease, such as memory loss and confusion. There are no specific medications for the treatment of PCA but some people find medications for Alzheimer's disease helpful. To Know more, Join us at #Alzheimers2018 at Madrid, Spain on 27-28 August, 2018.

Friday, 6 April 2018

Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

This condition occurs when excess fluid accumulates in the brain, but without causing pressure to build up in the brain tissue. 

Symptoms

Symptoms include difficulties with walking, dementia and urinary incontinence. In most cases the cause is unknown, but it sometimes develops after recovery from a head injury, brain hemorrhage (a bleed in the brain) or severe meningitis (an infection of the tissue surrounding the brain).

Treatment 

Treatment involves surgery to drain excess fluid. The success of this treatment varies depending on how early the condition is diagnosed, but symptoms may improve after surgery and some people make an almost complete recovery.

Thursday, 5 April 2018

Niemann-Pick Disease Type C

It is one of a group of rare inherited disorders. It is not related to frontotemporal #dementia, which is also sometimes called Pick's disease. It mainly affects school-age children but can occur at any time, from early infancy to adulthood. It is caused by an inherited inability to deal with cholesterol and other fats, causing them to accumulate in cells, including those in the #brain. This can lead to progressive loss of movement and difficulties with walking and swallowing.

Symptoms

People who first show symptoms in late adolescence or early adulthood are more likely to experience dementia as part of the disease. The dementia symptoms include confusion, memory problems and difficulties in concentrating and learning.

Treatment

There is currently no treatment for the disease, and life expectancy varies. However, researchers have identified the responsible gene and there is continuing research into this area.


Wednesday, 4 April 2018

Corticobasal degeneration (CBD)

Corticobasal degeneration (CBD) is a rare disease in which parts of the #brain become damaged and begin to shrink. The outer layer of the brain, known as the cortex, and deep parts of the brain, called the basal ganglia, are both affected. It is not yet known what causes CBD but producing too much of an abnormal form of a protein called tau is thought to play a role. The disease usually affects people between the ages of 60 and 80.

Symptoms

The first symptoms that people with CBD experience are problems with movement, such as stiffness and jerkiness in one or more of their limbs and a failure to control hand movement on one side (known as 'alien hand syndrome'). As the disease progresses, these problems will often spread to other limbs. Many people experience symptoms of #dementia, including problems with memory and thinking. A small proportion of people with frontotemporal dementia also develop CBD as an 'overlapping' condition. Other symptoms of CBD include loss of balance and co-ordination, and difficulties speaking and swallowing.

Treatment

Currently, there is no cure or treatment available to slow the progression of CBD, but drugs may help some symptoms and #physiotherapy, occupational therapy and speech and language therapy may be beneficial. On average, people live for around eight years after their symptoms first appear. (Source: Alzheimer's Society) 

Tuesday, 3 April 2018

Dementia

Dementia is a general term for a decline in mental ability severe enough to interfere with daily life. Memory loss is an example. Common type of dementia is Alzheimer's disease, Other common types include vascular dementia, Lewy body dementia, and frontotemporal dementia. Less common causes include normal pressure hydrocephalus, Parkinson's disease, syphilis, and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease among others. There is no known cure for dementia. Globally, dementia affected about 46 million people.

Early stages

The person can usually still take care of him or herself but may forget things like taking pills or doing laundry and may need prompting or reminders. Other signs might be getting lost in new places, repeating things, personality changes, social withdrawal and difficulties at work.

In Alzheimer's dementia the most prominent early symptom is memory difficulty.


Middle stages

People with Alzheimer's dementia in the moderate stages lose almost all new information very quickly. People with dementia may be severely impaired in solving problems, and their social judgment is usually also impaired. hey may be able to do simple chores around the house but not much else, and begin to require assistance for personal care and hygiene other than simple reminders

Late stages

People with late-stage dementia typically turn increasingly inward and need assistance with most or all their personal care. Persons with dementia in the late stages usually need 24-hour supervision to ensure personal safety.

Diagnosis

The symptoms are very similar, and it is usually difficult to diagnose the type of dementia by symptoms. Some mental illnesses, including depression and psychosis, may produce symptoms that must be differentiated from both delirium and dementia
  • Cognitive Testing
  • Laboratory Tests
  • Imaging

Monday, 2 April 2018

Epilepsy

It may occur as a result of a genetic disorder or an acquired brain injury, such as a trauma or stroke. People with epilepsy experience recurrent seizures, because a sudden surge of electrical activity in the brain causes a temporary disturbance in the messaging systems between brain cells. It is characterized by unpredictable #seizures and can cause other health problems. Epilepsy is a spectrum condition with a wide range of seizure types and control varying from person-to-person. Epilepsy is the fourth most common neurological disorder and affects people of all ages. #Epilepsy is usually treated by medication and in some cases by surgery, devices or dietary changes. Public misunderstandings of epilepsy cause challenges that are often worse than the seizures. To know more.. Join us at #Madrid, Spain on 27-28 August, 2018 at #Alzheimers2018.



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