Showing posts from April, 2018

Symptoms of Alzheimer's

The most common early symptom of Alzheimer's is difficulty remembering newly learned information.
Just like the rest of our bodies, our brains change as we age. Most of us eventually notice some slowed thinking and occasional problems with remembering certain things. However, serious memory loss, confusion and other major changes in the way our minds work may be a sign that brain cells are failing.
The most common early symptom of Alzheimer's is difficulty remembering newly learned information because Alzheimer's changes typically begin in the part of the brain that affects learning. As Alzheimer's advances through the brain it leads to increasingly severe symptoms, including disorientation, mood and behavior changes; deepening confusion about events, time and place; unfounded suspicions about family, friends and professional caregivers; more serious memory loss and behavior changes; and difficulty speaking, swallowing and walking.
To know more join us at the Internati…

Changes Observed in Brain

Alzheimer’s disease is an irreversible, progressive brain disorder that slowly destroys memory and thinking skills, and eventually the ability to carry out the simplest tasks. In most people with Alzheimer’s, symptoms first appear in their mid-60s. Estimates vary, but experts suggest that more than 5 million Americans may have Alzheimer’s.
Scientists continue to unravel the complex brain changes involved in the onset and progression of Alzheimer’s disease. It seems likely that damage to the brain starts a decade or more before memory and other cognitive problems appear. During this preclinical stage of Alzheimer’s disease, people seem to be symptom-free, but toxic changes are taking place in the brain. Abnormal deposits of proteins form amyloid plaques and tau tangles throughout the brain, and once-healthy neurons stop functioning, lose connections with other neurons, and die.
The damage initially appears to take place in the hippocampus, the part of the brain essential in forming mem…

Why Alzheimer's Disease is Caused?

Alzheimer's disease is caused by parts of the brain shrinking (atrophy), which affects the structure and function of particular brain areas. It's not known exactly what causes this process to begin. However, in the brains of people with Alzheimer's disease, scientists have found amyloid plaques (abnormal deposits of protein), neurofibrillary tangles (containing tau) and imbalances in a chemical called acetylcholine. It's also common to have a degree of vascular damage in the brain. These reduce the effectiveness of healthy neurons. Over time, this damage spreads to several areas of the brain. The first areas affected are responsible for memories.
Increased risk Although it's still unknown what triggers Alzheimer'sdisease, several factors are known to increase your risk of developing the condition.
Age Age is the single most significant factor in the development of Alzheimer's disease. The likelihood of developing the condition doubles every five years after y…

Stages of Alzheimer's Disease (cont)

These are the last three stages in Alzheimer's Disease Stage 5: Moderately Severe Decline During the fifth stage of Alzheimer’s, patients begin to need help with many day to day activities. People in stage five of the disease may experience: Significant confusionInability to recall simple details about themselves such as their own phone numberDifficulty dressing appropriately On the other hand, patients in stage five maintain a modicum of functionality. They typically can still bathe and toilet independently. They also usually still know their family members and some detail about their personal histories, especially their childhood and youth.
Stage 6: Severe Decline Patients with the sixth stage of Alzheimer’s disease need constant supervision and frequently require professional care. Symptoms include: Confusion or unawareness of environment and surroundingsMajor personality changes and potential behavior problemsThe need for assistance with activities of daily living such as toiletin…

Alzheimer's Disease: Stages

Every person with Alzheimer’s disease experiences the disease differently, but patients tend to experience a similar trajectory from the beginning of the illness to its merciful end. The precise number of stages is somewhat arbitrary. Some experts use a simple three-phase model (early, moderate and end), while others have found a granular breakdown to be a more useful aid to understanding the progression of the illness.
Stage 1: No Impairment During this stage, Alzheimer’s disease is not detectable and no memory problems or other symptoms of dementia are evident.
Stage 2: Very Mild Decline The senior may notice minor memory problems or lose things around the house, although not to the point where the memory loss can easily be distinguished from normal age related memory loss. The person will still do well on memory tests and the disease is unlikely to be detected by physicians or loved ones.
Stage 3: Mild Decline At this stage, the friends and family members of the senior may begin to n…

Statistics of Dementia

Someone in the world develops dementia every 3 seconds. There were an estimated 46.8 million people worldwide living with dementia in 2015 and this number is believed to be close to 50 million people in 2017. This number will almost double every 20 years, reaching 75 million in 2030 and 131.5 million in 2050. Much of the increase will be in developing countries. Already 58% of people with dementia live in low and middle income countries, but by 2050 this will rise to 68%. The fastest growth in the elderly population is taking place in China, India, and their south Asian and western Pacific neighbors.
Demographic ageing is a worldwide process that shows the successes of improved health care over the last century. Many are now living longer and healthier lives and so the world population has a greater proportion of older people. Dementia mainly affects older people, although there is a growing awareness of cases that start before the age of 65.
There are over 9.9 million new cases of de…

Risk Factors of Dementia

Certain risk factors are known to be associated with dementia. However, age is the biggest predictor. Other risk factors include: Smoking and alcohol use.Atherosclerosis (cardiovascular disease causing the arteries to narrow).High levels of "bad" cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein).Above-average blood levels of homocysteine (a type of amino acid).Diabetes.Mild cognitive impairment can sometimes, but not always, lead to dementia. This means you can help reduce your risk of dementia by: Eating a healthy, balanced diet.Maintaining a healthy weight.Exercising regularly.Keeping alcohol to a minimum.Stopping smoking.Keeping blood pressure at a healthy level. To know more join us at International Conference on Alzheimers, Dementia and Related Neurodegenerative Diseases...

Dementia Treatments

Brain cell death cannot be reversed, so there is no known cure for degenerative dementia. Management of disorders such as Alzheimer's disease is instead focused on providing care and treating symptoms rather than their underlying cause.
If dementia symptoms are due to a reversible, non-degenerative cause, however, treatment may be possible to prevent or halt further brain tissue damage.
Examples include injury, medication effects, and vitamin deficiency.
Symptoms of Alzheimer's disease can be reduced by some medications. There are four drugs, called cholinesterase inhibitors, approved for use in the U.S.: donepezil (brand name Aricept)galantamine (Reminyl)rivastigmine (Exelon)tacrine (Cognex) A different kind of drug, memantine (Namenda), an NMDA receptor antagonist, may also be used, alone or in combination with a cholinesterase inhibitor.
Cholinesterase inhibitors can also help with the behavioral elements of Parkinson's disease. To know more join us at Alzheimers2018

Diagnosing Dementia: Second Part

The second part of the test probes someone close to the patient and includes six questions to find out whether the patient has: become less able to remember recent events or conversationsbegun struggling to find the right words or using inappropriate onesfound difficulty managing money or medicationsneeded more help with transport (without the reason being, for example, injury)If the test does suggest memory loss, standard investigations are then recommended, including routine blood tests and a CT brain scan. Clinical tests will identify, or rule out, treatable causes of memory loss and help to narrow down potential causes, such as Alzheimer's disease.
The mini-mental state examination (MMSE) is a cognitive test which measures: orientation to time and placeword recalllanguage abilitiesattention and calculationvisuospatial skills The MMSE is used to help diagnose dementia caused by Alzheimer's disease and also to rate its severity and whether drug treatment is needed.

Diagnosing Dementia

The first step in testing memory performance and cognitive health involves standard questions and tasks. Research has shown that dementia cannot be reliably diagnosed without using the standard tests below, completing them fully, and recording all the answers; however, diagnosis also takes account of other factors. Cognitive DementiaTests Today's cognitive dementia tests are widely used and have been verified as a reliable way of indicating dementia. They have changed little since being established in the early 1970s. The abbreviated mental test score has ten questions, which include: What is your age? What is the time, to the nearest hour? What is the year? What is your date of birth?
Each correct answer gets one point; scoring six points or fewer suggests cognitive impairment. The General Practitioner Assessment of Cognition (GPCOG) test includes an added element for recording the observations of relatives and caregivers.
Designed for doctors, this sort of test may be the first …

Cause of Dementia

Dementias can be caused by brain cell death, and neurodegenerative disease - progressive brain cell death that happens over time - is associated with most dementias. However it is not known if the dementia causes the brain cell death, or the brain cell death causes the dementia. But, as well as progressive brain cell death, like that seen in Alzheimer's disease, dementia can be caused by a head injury, a stroke, or a brain tumor, among other causes.
Vascular dementia (also called multi-infarct dementia) - resulting from brain cell death caused by conditions such as cerebrovascular disease, for example, stroke. This prevents normal blood flow, depriving brain cells of oxygen.
Injury - Post-traumatic dementia is directly related to brain cell death caused by injury.
Some types of traumatic brain injury - Particularly if repetitive, such as those received by sports players - have been linked to certain dementias appearing later in life. Evidence is weak, however, that a single brain inj…

Types of Dementia

There are several types of dementia, including: Alzheimer's disease is characterized by "plaques" between the dying cells in the brain and "tangles" within the cells (both are due to protein abnormalities). The brain tissue in a person with Alzheimer's has progressively fewer nerve cells and connections, and the total brain size shrinks.Dementia with Lewy bodies is a neurodegenerative condition linked to abnormal structures in the brain. The brain changes involve a protein called alpha-synuclein.Mixed dementia refers to a diagnosis of two or three types occurring together. For instance, a person may show both Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia at the same time.Parkinson's disease is also marked by the presence of Lewy bodies. Although Parkinson's is often considered a disorder of movement, it can also lead to dementia symptoms.Huntington's disease is characterized by specific types of uncontrolled movements but also includes dementia. …

Early Signs of Dementia

It includes: Changes in short-term memory.Changes in mood.Trouble finding the right words.Apathy.Confusion.Being repetitive.Finds it hard to follow a storyline.Trouble completing everyday tasks.Poor sense of direction.Difficulty adapting to changes. Possible Symptoms of Dementia: A person with dementia may show any of the symptoms listed below, mostly due to memory loss.

Some symptoms they may notice themselves, others may only be noticed by caregivers or healthcare workers.
Recent memory loss - a sign of this might be asking the same question repeatedly.Difficulty completing familiar tasks - for example, making a drink or cooking a meal.Problems communicating - difficulty with language; forgetting simple words or using the wrong ones.Disorientation - getting lost on a previously familiar street, for example.Problems with abstract thinking - for instance, dealing with money.Misplacing things - forgetting the location of everyday items such as keys, or wallets, for example.Mood changes …


It is a collective term used to describe various symptoms of cognitive decline, such as forgetfulness. It is a symptom of several underlying diseases and brain disorders. Dementia is not a single disease in itself, but a general term to describe symptoms of impairment in memory, communication, and thinking. While the likelihood of having dementia increases with age, it is not a normal part of aging. StatisticsAn analysis of the most recent census estimates that 4.7 million people aged 65 years or older in the United States were living with Alzheimer's disease in 2010. The Alzheimer's Association estimates that: Just over a tenth of people aged 65 years or more have Alzheimer's diseaseThis proportion rises to about a third of people aged 85 and olderAlzheimer's accounts for 60-80 percent of all cases of dementiaFast Facts on Dementia There are an estimated 47.5 million dementia sufferers worldwideOne new case of dementia is diagnosed every 4 secondsDementia mostly affects…

Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

PSP is a rare progressive movement disorder, sometimes known as Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome. It affects many areas of the brain and people typically have symptoms similar to those of Parkinson's disease. As with Parkinson's disease, there may be a tremor (involuntary shaking of the body and limbs), but this is much less prominent in PSP. The specific parts of the brain that are damaged include the regions that control eye movements and those that keep a person steady when they are walking, resulting in frequent falls. The cause of the damage that occurs in PSP is unknown, but is linked to abnormal deposits of a protein called tau. SymptomsPSP mainly occurs in people over the age of 60, although it occasionally affects younger people. One striking symptom is paralysis of eye movements and problems with double vision. Other symptoms include stiff or slow movements, difficulties walking and speaking, swallowing problems and personality changes. TreatmentAlthough the person…

Posterior Cortical Atrophy (PCA)

Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), also known as Benson's syndrome, is a rare degenerative condition in which damage occurs at the back (posterior region) of the brain. In the vast majority of people, the cause of PCA is Alzheimer's disease. Symptoms The first symptoms of PCA tend to occur when people are in their mid-50s or early 60s. However, the first signs are often subtle and so it may be some time before a formal diagnosis is made.
Initially, people with PCA tend to have a relatively well-preserved memory but experience problems with their vision, such as difficulty recognising faces and objects in pictures. They may also have problems with literacy and numeracy. These tasks are controlled by the back part of the brain, where the initial damage in PCA occurs. Treatment and Cure As damage in the brain spreads and the disease progresses, people develop the more typical symptoms of Alzheimer's disease, such as memory loss and confusion. There are no specific medications…

Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

This condition occurs when excess fluid accumulates in the brain, but without causing pressure to build up in the brain tissue.  Symptoms Symptoms include difficulties with walking, dementia and urinary incontinence. In most cases the cause is unknown, but it sometimes develops after recovery from a head injury, brain hemorrhage (a bleed in the brain) or severe meningitis (an infection of the tissue surrounding the brain). Treatment  Treatment involves surgery to drain excess fluid. The success of this treatment varies depending on how early the condition is diagnosed, but symptoms may improve after surgery and some people make an almost complete recovery.

Niemann-Pick Disease Type C

It is one of a group of rare inherited disorders. It is not related to frontotemporal #dementia, which is also sometimes called Pick's disease. It mainly affects school-age children but can occur at any time, from early infancy to adulthood. It is caused by an inherited inability to deal with cholesterol and other fats, causing them to accumulate in cells, including those in the #brain. This can lead to progressive loss of movement and difficulties with walking and swallowing. SymptomsPeople who first show symptoms in late adolescence or early adulthood are more likely to experience dementia as part of the disease. The dementia symptoms include confusion, memory problems and difficulties in concentrating and learning. TreatmentThere is currently no treatment for the disease, and life expectancy varies. However, researchers have identified the responsible gene and there is continuing research into this area.

Corticobasal degeneration (CBD)

Corticobasal degeneration (CBD) is a rare disease in which parts of the #brain become damaged and begin to shrink. The outer layer of the brain, known as the cortex, and deep parts of the brain, called the basal ganglia, are both affected. It is not yet known what causes CBD but producing too much of an abnormal form of a protein called tau is thought to play a role. The disease usually affects people between the ages of 60 and 80.
Symptoms The first symptoms that people with CBD experience are problems with movement, such as stiffness and jerkiness in one or more of their limbs and a failure to control hand movement on one side (known as 'alien hand syndrome'). As the disease progresses, these problems will often spread to other limbs. Many people experience symptoms of #dementia, including problems with memory and thinking. A small proportion of people with frontotemporal dementia also develop CBD as an 'overlapping' condition. Other symptoms of CBD include loss of b…


Dementia is a general term for a decline in mental ability severe enough to interfere with daily life. Memory loss is an example. Common type of dementia is Alzheimer's disease,Other common types include vascular dementia, Lewy body dementia, and frontotemporal dementia.Less common causes include normal pressure hydrocephalus, Parkinson's disease, syphilis, and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease among others.There is no known cure for dementia.Globally, dementia affected about 46 million people.
Early stagesThe person can usually still take care of him or herself but may forget things like taking pills or doing laundry and may need prompting or reminders.Other signs might be getting lost in new places, repeating things, personality changes, social withdrawal and difficulties at work.
In Alzheimer's dementia the most prominent early symptom is memory difficulty.
Middle stagesPeople with Alzheimer's dementia in the moderate stages lose almost all new information very quickly.People …


It may occur as a result of a genetic disorder or an acquired brain injury, such as a trauma or stroke. People with epilepsy experience recurrent seizures, because a sudden surge of electrical activity in the brain causes a temporary disturbance in the messaging systems between brain cells. It is characterized by unpredictable #seizures and can cause other health problems. Epilepsy is a spectrum condition with a wide range of seizure types and control varying from person-to-person. Epilepsy is the fourth most common neurological disorder and affects people of all ages. #Epilepsy is usually treated by medication and in some cases by surgery, devices or dietary changes. Public misunderstandings of epilepsy cause challenges that are often worse than the seizures. To know more.. Join us at #Madrid, Spain on 27-28 August, 2018 at #Alzheimers2018.