Friday, 25 May 2018

Complications of Multiple Sclerosis

Because the effects of nerve injury are widespread, the many complications can be very severe and affect all parts of the body. Although not all individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience all of the following complications, any of them can negatively affect the individual's quality of life.
  • Fatigue: Fatigue is one of the most common and debilitating MS symptoms and affects at least two thirds of patients with MS. Fatigue causes a general lack of energy that significantly limits daily functioning regardless of any neurologic symptoms or specific muscle weaknesses.
  • Loss of mobility and spasticity: Nearly every individual with MS loses some mobility, which may take the form of impaired motor control, muscle weakness, impaired balance, tremor, and, importantly, spasticity. Spasticity is one of the primary symptoms of MS.
  • Pain: About two-thirds of MS patients experience pain at some point during the course of the disease and 40% are never pain free.
  • Bowel dysfunction: Bowel dysfunction, which can include constipation or faecal incontinence, is a serious problem for many MS patients. Constipation may be caused by the disorder itself or by medications used to treat spasms or other symptoms. Diarrhoea may also occur.
  • Sexual dysfunction: Sexual dysfunction is a common problem in those with MS, occurring in over 70% of patients. Men are likely to have impotence and women have problems with vaginal lubrication, both leading to sexual dysfunction. It appears to be highly associated with urinary dysfunction.
  • Urinary urgency or hesitancy: Individuals with urinary urgency feel the need to urinate frequently and urgently and initiating difficulty in urination respectively.
  • Incontinence: Incontinence is the loss of bladder control. Sometimes MS will disrupt the nerve signals sent to the body parts that control urine movement allowing urine to be expelled involuntarily.
  • Nocturia: Individuals with nocturia must awake frequently during the night to go to the bathroom.
  • Visual problems: Vision problems that can occur with MS include: blurred or dimmed vision; pain with eye movement; blind spots, particularly involving central vision; color blindness; double vision; and nystagmus, or vision that jumps uncontrollably.
  • Difficulty swallowing: One-third to one-half of MS patients experience difficulty in chewing or swallowing, problems that may be caused or made worse by many MS medications.
  • Speech and hearing problems: Problems in speech may occur because of difficulty in controlling the quality of the voice and articulating words.
  • Lung problems: As the muscles that control breathing weaken, the ability to cough is impaired and the individual with MS is at higher risk for pneumonia and other complications in the lungs.
  • Osteoporosis: Osteoporosis, or the loss of bone density, and subsequent fractures are a common problem among individuals with MS.
  • Cognitive problems: Cognitive problems, such as having trouble concentrating and solving problems, affect about half of MS patients.
  • Depression: Between 40-60% of MS patients suffer from depression at some point over the course of the illness, and studies have reported risks for suicide ranging from 3-15%.

Risk factors of Multiple Sclerosis

These factors may increase your risk of developing multiple sclerosis:
  • Age. Multiple Sclerosis can occur at any age, but most commonly affects people between the ages of 15 and 60.
  • Sex. Women are about twice as likely as men are to develop MS.
  • Family history. If one of your parents or siblings has had MS, you are at higher risk of developing the disease.
  • Certain infections. A variety of viruses have been linked to MS, including Epstein-Barr, the virus that causes infectious mononucleosis.
  • Race. White people, particularly those of Northern European descent, are at highest risk of developing MS. People of Asian, African or Native American descent have the lowest risk.
  • Climate. MS is far more common in countries with temperate climates, including Canada, the northern United States, New Zealand, southeastern Australia and Europe.
  • Certain autoimmune diseases. You have a slightly higher risk of developing MS if you have thyroid disease, type 1 diabetes or inflammatory bowel disease.
  • Smoking. Smokers who experience an initial event of symptoms that may signal MS are more likely than nonsmokers to develop a second event that confirms relapsing-remitting MS.
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Wednesday, 23 May 2018

Causes of Multiple Sclerosis

The cause of multiple sclerosis is unknown. It's considered an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system attacks its own tissues. In the case of MS, this immune system malfunction destroys myelin (the fatty substance that coats and protects nerve fibers in the brain and spinalcord).

Myelin can be compared to the insulation coating on electrical wires. When the protective myelin is damaged and nerve fiber is exposed, the messages that travel along that nerve may be slowed or blocked. The nerve may also become damaged itself.

It isn't clear why MS develops in some people and not others. A combination of genetics and environmental factors appears to be responsible.

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Tuesday, 22 May 2018

Course of Multiple Sclerosis

Most people with Multiple Sclerosis have a relapsing-remitting disease course. They experience periods of new symptoms or relapses that develop over days or weeks and usually improve partially or completely. These relapses are followed by quiet periods of disease remission that can last months or even years.

Small increases in body temperature can temporarily worsen signs and symptoms of MS, but these aren't considered disease relapses.

About 60 to 70 percent of people with relapsing-remitting MS eventually develop a steady progression of symptoms, with or without periods of remission, known as secondary-progressive MS.

The worsening of symptoms usually includes problems with mobility and gait. The rate of disease progression varies greatly among people with secondary-progressive MS.

Some people with MS experience a gradual onset and steady progression of signs and symptoms without any relapses. This is known as primary-progressive MS.

Multiple Sclerosis is a disease in which the immune system eats away at the protective covering of nerves. To know more about the disease you can join us at the International Conference on #Alzheimers, #Dementia and Related #Neurodegenerative Diseases on 27-28 August, 2018 at Madrid, Spain.. To know more visit: or drop us a mail at

Symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis signs and symptoms may differ greatly from person to person and over the course of the disease depending on the location of affected nerve fibers. They may include:
  • Numbness or weakness in one or more limbs that typically occurs on one side of your body at a time, or the legs and trunk
  • Partial or complete loss of vision, usually in one eye at a time, often with pain during eye movement
  • Prolonged double vision
  • Tingling or pain in parts of your body
  • Electric-shock sensations that occur with certain neck movements, especially bending the neck forward (Lhermitte sign)
  • Tremor, lack of coordination or unsteady gait
  • Slurred speech
  • Fatigue
  • Dizziness
  • Problems with bowel and bladder function
To know more about the recent research going on in the field of Multiple Sclerosis, join us at the International Conference on #Alzheimers, #Dementia and Related #Neurodegenerative Diseases

Monday, 21 May 2018

Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a potentially disabling disease of the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system).

In MS, the immune system attacks the protective sheath (myelin) that covers nerve fibers and causes communication problems between your brain and the rest of your body. Eventually, the disease can cause the nerves themselves to deteriorate or become permanently damaged.

Signs and symptoms of MS vary widely and depend on the amount of nerve damage and which nerves are affected. Some people with severe MS may lose the ability to walk independently or at all, while others may experience long periods of remission without any new symptoms.

There's no cure for multiple sclerosis. However, treatments can help speed recovery from attacks, modify the course of the disease and manage symptoms.

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Thursday, 17 May 2018

Prevention of Epilepsy

If the seizures are related to another medical condition, identification and treatment of that medical condition is the key to prevention. If anticonvulsant medication is prescribed, taking the medication on the recommended schedule and not missing medication is important.
  • Some people with epilepsy are quite sensitive to alcohol. If this pattern develops, avoid alcohol. Others may have seizures only after ceasing heavy alcohol intake. The key to prevention is avoidance of alcohol.
  • Sleep deprivation and stress certainly may increase the frequency of seizures in some people with epilepsy.

Epilepsy Outlook

Epilepsy simply describes the condition of recurrent seizures. The outcome of the seizure disorder is strongly related to the cause of the seizures, if a cause is discovered.

For people with symptomatic epilepsy-that is, seizures that occur because other medical conditions exist -prognosis will depend on the other medical condition.
  • Seizures resulting from low blood sugars, for example, could be prevented by careful management and avoidance of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar).
  • Seizures related to progressive medical conditions such as some brain tumors or metabolic conditions may be difficult to control and may have a poor outcome.
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Complications of Multiple Sclerosis Because the effects of nerve injury are widespread, the many complications can be very severe and...